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Utopias e. Lumen, Entre el Urbanismo y la Arquitectura. Urbanismo Utopias Realidades. Download with Google Download with Facebook or download with email. GET pdf Choay - es. Tudo aqui gira ao redor da literatura, seja ela nacional ou estrangeira. Choay; prev. Post on Jul Category: Documents. El Urbanismo Utopias y Realidades Parte 1.
Franoise Choay - O Urbanismo. Choay, Francoise: El urbanismo. Editorial Lumen, Barcelona, O Urbanismo - Utopias Realidades. Francoise Francoise. Ano: Editora: Perspectiva.
El Urbanismo. Francoise Choay ; El Urbanismo. Buscar Buscar. As the historian Walter Hanisch noted, if we analyze the descriptions the chronicler made of Rome - a city where he lived for six years - it appears as if the Jesuit considered Santiago had no reason to envy the European cultural capital of the seventeenth century Hanisch, However, it would be difficult to imagine that the Chilean capital - a city mostly composed of small adobe and wood buildings and containing no more than a thousand inhabitants - could have had the presence Ovalle sought to promote.
The eleven engraved facades of Jesuit schools are, at the same time, some of the earliest existing records of the architecture built in Chilean territory Peliowski, Figure 3.
According to art historian Isabel Cruz, the drawings depict an 'archaic' image of Chile because of their rough lines and the absence of an accurate and updated application of the perspective technique in the representation of buildings. Thus, Cruz recognizes in these prints a link to a medieval graphic tradition, even suggesting that this relationship is based on the naive and primitive character of Ovalle's strokes Cruz, Indeed, traces of a medieval imagery can be noticed in them: on the one hand, the outline of columns, cupolas, ornaments, tiled roofs, iron gates and steeples arrange a sort of typological inventory that can be associated with Villard de Honnecourt's thirteenth-century architectural cadaster.
Furthermore, the perspective view is flattened - given the lack of a vanishing point -, recalling medieval horariums where the background tends to blend into the foreground.
All buildings are represented in a vague and ambiguous projection, which mixes a conical perspective with an orthogonal view.
The engravings of the Bucalemu Figure 3 b probation house and the Quillota Figure 3 c mission house, in particular, depict this kind of rudimentary perspective; in the first, the Aconcagua river is drawn as if it was a plan view, while the building and the valley are shown through frontal views, and, in both plates, surrounding buildings are drawn disproportionately in relation to the main religious building.
The previous is enhanced by a context of architectural union tradition, in full existence in Chile since the mid-sixteenth century. Recipient of the Middle Ages, builders' labor organization means in the form of craftsmanship corporations involved collective and anonymous work, where decisions were made empirically during construction.
The Renaissance canon with regard to labor organization - one where project guidelines were preset by an architect or engineer, who embodied his ideas in a drawing prior to construction and only then transmitted them to builders - would not be established in Chile until much later, during the second half of the eighteenth century with the arrival of Toesca and a group of engineers sent by the Bourbon King Charles iii to modernize the country's urban, military and territorial infrastructure Peliowski, Despite the evidence of these medieval-origin elements, we propose here - in opposition to Isabel Cruz's judgment - that the Jesuit's engravings can be interpreted as expressions not of Chilean cultural delay - expressed in Ovalle's graphic amateurism - but of a modern vision of architecture and of the equally modern project of man's domination over nature.
The modernity of anthropocentric representation A first feature of 'modernity' in Ovalle's facades lies precisely in a departure from the medieval representation canon.
According to the medieval conception, buildings were an expression of divinity on earth.
Its representation thus could not be detached from the act of construction, as it was through men's work that temples were erected as an expression of divinity on earth. Architecture drawn in horariums usually existed as background for a narrative scene, and took a central part in the image only when the scene recounted the construction of a building - in such cases, usually accompanied by craftsmen builders working on site Savignat, Figure 4.
Manuscrito conservado en la British Library, Londres. Horarium from the Book of Hours of the Duke of Bedford, anonymous master. First third of the 15th century. The Renaissance brought, however, the possibility of giving architecture - now assumed as a human rather than divine work - a central role in paintings and drawings. The development of the perspective technique since the late fourteenth century was particularly connected to architectural representation, given its pure geometric and orthogonal forms - that allowed to verify optic rules - and according to an anthropocentric ideology originated in urban centers Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, Likewise, according to the humanist logic, whose beauty and harmony standards were inspired by those of antiquity, architecture was considered as a monument with memory.
In accordance with the retrieval of ancient values in the early fifteenth century, the notion of historical monuments - and since, the idea of heritage - was born in the Renaissance.
The action inaugurated a great interest in ancient ruins that "since then, speak of history and confirm Rome's fabulous past, whose splendor is mourned by Gian Francesco Poggio Bracciolini and his humanist friends, and whose pillage they condemn" Choay, Both, the application of a rational matrix to space representation as well as the historical and anthropic attributes of architecture are essential aspects of the transition into an artistic modernity that crystallized in the Renaissance, a starting point for a philosophical, political and artistic project whose main task was to assert the rational and scientific value of all human activity Tafuri, ; Touraine, The building's historical dependence, characterized by the granting of a cultural attribute to that which is built - in detriment of its mystical origin - reminds us of the place that Ovalle's engravings of Jesuit colleges acquire within his natural history of Chile.
The facades, cleansed from any human presence and inserted into a historical narrative, constitute a sort of inventory of Jesuit heritage in the province of Chile. Although developed with the rudimentary graphic conventions of an amateur drawer, they can be understood as heirs of a humanist conception of architecture. For the Spanish, domination of the territory in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was materialized by founding cities and spreading fortifications across the land, seeking to protect conquerors from attacks while expanding the conquest towards the south of Chile Guarda, ; for the religious, church architecture was also designed as a sign of conquest over the landscape.
Indeed, since the introduction of the Society of Jesus in and until their expulsion in , Jesuit churches and monasteries were used as centers from which the evangelizing mission radiated. San Sevastian of Bucalemo probation house goes from Maule to Maypo, which is another large space and distance.
The collegio de San Miguel in Santiago goes from Maypo to Coquimbo, which are over sixty leagues, and from there to Guasco and Copiapo another thirty, so as to have a circuit that will come to two hundred leagues This is what concerns the circumference and place of these missions" Ovalle, The temples of these missions were scattered over the territory in a scheme comprising regular intervals of a distance corresponding to a one-day trip, and were built with similar materials following a regional style.
They remained closed most of the year yet seasonally received visits from missionaries on tour through the territory, offering sporadic religious rituals Montecinos, Although the church did not have enough priests at the time, it was important to install visual symbols of their evangelization through colonial possessions that were still sparsely inhabited Modiano, For the Jesuits, the means of spiritual conquest were intimately linked to images, and therefore to art, including architecture.
In fact, the Society was a congregation particularly committed to the arts during the period extending between its founding in Rome in and the end of the eighteenth century. Their artistic work was considerably determinant for the sixteen, seventeen and eighteen-century art in Europe as well as in the American and Asian missions.
Also, in addition to discussions about the existence of a Jesuit corporate identity, characteristics and scope of the so-called 'Jesuit style,' and its mode of penetration inside the missions, and the underlying aesthetic, political and philosophical criteria in the artistic production of the Ignatian during that period, are all still in force Bailey, ; O'Malley et al.
Furthermore, not only were they art producers, but they also forged and disseminated a visual culture of its own, one that entailed the creation and use of images in a broad sense, using painting, sculpture and architecture to spread their influence through the territories as well as their costumes, botanical illustrations, scientific volume covers and meditation pamphlets, which served as tools of indoctrination of the population during the missions Levy, We propose, therefore, that in the context of an advanced state of the colonial settlement process, architecture becomes not only a shelter against severe weather, earthquakes or war, but also a monument symbolizing a successful civilized, indoctrinated, and economically and culturally productive society.
Thus, from the protective purpose of fortresses to the domesticating determination of religious buildings, the first colonial architectures can be understood as a configuration, an ordered structure amid the natural extension seeking to dominate the wilderness, but also to convert and civilize the 'natural' pagans. Besides, if we consider that the conquest and control of nature through technology has been one of the main principles of the modern era - as it has been traditionally understood in Western historiography Touraine, ; Latour, - we can then attribute the buildings engraved by Ovalle the quality of a symbol of modern society.
Architecture, in this context, represents the historical role of being a cultural emblem, and, consequently, an emblem of modernity Nesbitt, Medieval Image and Modern Imaginary The significant presence of building drawings in Ovalle's description of Chile seems to express the author's concern to show that which man has built in a landscape previously characterized as savage and hostile.
While the image of Castro's church, as Santiago's plan, is a graphic hyperbole created by Ovalle, the plates - as Bailey elaborates - can be interpreted as the expression of a contradiction between the shape depicted in the image and the ideology it implies.
On the one hand, the engravings have the medieval appearance identified by Isabel Cruz; on the other, as noted, they express Ovalle's concern to show the kingdom's cultural products: indigenous customs, cities, architectural monuments, and so on. Thus, they present a contrast between the provincialism expressed in the chronicler's graphic technique and the image's implicit modernity of establishing a cultural practice - in this case architecture - as a symbol of overcoming the wild and hostile conditions of Chilean territory and an emblem of a civilized society.
Hence, in Ovalle's images coexists a medieval appearance with the expression of a worldview centered on man and his ability both to build and to represent that which is built.
These images are not, therefore, a reflection of Chilean cultural backwardness, but the manifestation of the modern imaginary of a contemporary man. En: O'Malley et al.