De brief voor de koning by Tonke Dragt eBook: Document: Secondary (senior high) school Der Brief für den König Abenteuer-Roman by Tonke Dragt. Editorial Reviews. About the Author. Emile Zola wurde am in Paris geboren. Emile Zola (Author), Willibald König (Translator) . setzte er sich mit einem Brief für die Unschuld von Dreyfus ein (J'accuse) und wurde zu. ; trekouthemsogold.tk /trekouthemsogold.tk Gahname/Gahname.7/GahnameParthian%trekouthemsogold.tk  König W. Ein.
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Wir schreiben das Jahr Im Dom zu Aachen soll ein neuer deutscher König gekrönt werden. Und niemand versteht, wie es soweit kommen konnte. Vollmacht als Regent (balius) für Italien und das Königreich Sizilien (in Italia et XIII — Brief des Nikolaus von Rocca den den Kanzler [Walter von Ocra] mit. Netzwerk Transkulturelle Verflechtungen (= G. Christ, S. Dönitz, D. König, Ş. Ergänzend erfolgt eine ebenfalls in abschließende Überlegungen zu der Frage, Der Brief ist in einer kürzeren und einer längeren Version überliefert Pa- .
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Finally, a very important dimension of religiosity is religious commitment, which reflects the influence that religious beliefs have on a person's decisions and lifestyle. The embraced creed is lightly held or else selectively shaped to fit more primary needs. Intrinsic Orientation: Persons with this orientation find their master motive in religion. Other needs, strong as they may be, are regarded as of less ultimate significance, and they are, so far as possible, brought in harmony with the religious beliefs and prescriptions.
Having embraced a creed the individual endeavors to internalize it and follow it fully.
It is exactly this behavior that has been most consistently associated with better mental health. Although the research on religion and mental health involves many others outcomes e. Psychological well-being Several recent studies have used measures of spirituality, mainly spiritual well-being, and they usually have found positive correlations with psychological well-being and other indicators of positive mental health.
However, the instruments used in some of these studies, like SWBS32 and FACIT-Sp33 are strongly contaminated by measures of mental health and well-being, therefore it is not surprising that results were associated with positive health outcomes. Out of studies that examined the association between religious practices and behavior and indicators of psychological well-being life satisfaction, happiness, positive affect, and higher morale , 79 reported at least one significant positive correlation between these variables.
This positive association has been consistently similar in samples from different countries, involving a diversity of religions, races and ages. Some studies have shown that the positive impact of religious involvement on well-being is more robust among the elderly, disabled, and medically ill people.
In a recent research study with British residents from retirement housing,48 spiritual beliefs were a significant predictor of psychological well-being even after controlling for marital status, age, education, health problems and gender.
Spiritual beliefs also had a positive effect on psychological well-being buffering the impact of frailty. In another study, religiosity was one of the most important factors associated with psychological well-being in a sample of Canadian older adults following spousal loss, even after adjusting for social support, negative life events, health status and demographic variables.
As will be discussed later, these may be some of the mediating factors between religiousness and well-being. This optimism, in turn, had a strong influence on their self-rated health status. Depression A recent systematic review with meta-analysis summarized the results of independent investigations involving a total of 98, subjects on the association between religiousness and depressive symptoms.
The size of this association, although modest, is similar to that found between gender and depressive symptoms about. The association between religiousness and depression did not vary among the different age, gender or ethnic groups.
However, the studies used several types of religious measures and included people under various levels of stress. Therefore, performing the analysis of all these studies together may have decreased the strength of the association that might exist in more specific situations. These findings are in line with those described above for well-being, the protective effect of religiousness appearing to be stronger for people under psychosocial stress.
Koenig et al. The same meta-analysis discussed above53 showed that the association between religiousness and depressive symptoms differed across the type of religiousness measured.
Although the evidence is strongly consistent in establishing the religiousness-depression relationship, the majority of the studies was cross sectional in nature and was performed among US residents, a population with a high religiosity level.
However, research conducted in other countries has found equivalent results. Two Brazilian studies used a screening questionnaire for common mental disorders depression, anxiety and somatization disorders in two different religious populations.
Lotufo Neto,55 in a sample of religious ministers, found that intrinsic religiosity was associated with better mental health. In the other investigation, a random sample of spiritist mediums had lower scores of psychiatric symptoms than samples from the general population.
Frequent church attendance was associated with lower depressive symptoms during the follow-up, and the association persisted after adjusting for demographic variables, physical health, social support and alcohol use.
Because the last two variables themselves could be influenced by religiousness, the results are even stronger. Supporting previous studies, the difference in depression scores between regular church attenders and non-frequent church attenders was larger for those with higher functional limitations.
These approaches have shown to be at least as effective as the secular psychotherapies in meta-analysis,58 and in some studies they were associated with faster improvement of the symptoms among religious patients.
Most of the studies were conducted among adolescents, when drug use usually starts, but research amidst adult populations also demonstrated similar findings. Although several dimensions of religiosity were usually associated with lower prevalence of major depression, anxiety disorders and anti-social behavior with the exception of panic disorder that was mildly associated with general religiosity , the strongest association was between almost all the religious dimensions and lower prevalence rates of nicotine, alcohol and drug abuse or dependence.
Students who did not receive a religious education in childhood underwent a higher use of ecstasy OR 4. The lack of religious affiliation was associated with higher cocaine OR 2. Religiousness was the second most important protective factor, after having a structured family.
Family structure was, in turn, associated with family religiousness. Suicide Besides the psychological impact of religious belief in life after death, the association above mentioned, of religious involvement with lower levels of depression and drug use two main factors presented in the large majority of suicide cases , gives good reasons for a negative relationship between religiousness and suicidal behaviors.
Unfortunately, the impact of religiousness on suicidal behaviors did not receive enough attention within the medical and psychological literature. Although suicidal behaviors are strongly disapproved of by most religions, mainly in Western ones, and the long standing tradition in sociology, starting with the classic work of Durkheim, most of the medical and psychological investigations on suicide don't take into account religious factors appropriately.
The findings from these early studies were usually inconsistent; whereas, the most robust results have emerged from the examination of the effects of religious involvement in suicide. The first type correlates data on religious involvement of entire populations e. Most of these studies found that the level of religious involvement in a given area is inversely proportional to that area's suicide rate. The second type of study correlates the individual religious involvement rates with suicide deaths, attempts or ideation.
In a US sample of suicides and 4, natural deaths among subjects aged 50 and older, the suicide rate among people who did not attend religious activities was 4 times higher OR 4. One recent study involving depressed inpatients found that those with no religious affiliation, despite having the same level of depression, had more lifetime suicide attempts The group that received religious education reported less suicide ideation and lower acceptance of suicide, but were more accepting and sympathetic to a suicidal close friend than the secular ones.
Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the influence of religion on human health. Healthy behaviors and lifestyle Several illnesses are related to behavior and lifestyle. The way we eat, drink, drive our automobile, have sex, smoke, use drugs, follow medical prescriptions, exam ourselves for prevention have important influences in our health. Most religions prescribe or prohibit behaviors that may impact health.
Today other illnesses are more relevant. Prescriptions about keeping a day of rest, the body as a sacred temple, monogamous sex, moderation on eating and drinking, peaceful relationships are doctrines that might be also helpful for contemporary health problems related to stress, competition, individualism, narcissism, anger, shame etc.
A good clinical example trying to apply those teachings was the research of Thoresen et al. Visits to a holy shrine on specific times can enhance the risk of accidents.
Prohibition of vaccines, medication or blood transfusion, endogamous marriages, violence against unbelievers, handling of poisonous snakes, the way dead bodies are handled are other examples of behaviors that can bring health problems. Social support Belonging to a group brings psychosocial support that can promote health.
Religion might provide social cohesion, the sense of belonging to a caring group, continuity in relationships with friends and family and other support groups. Social support can influence health by facilitating adherence to health promotion programs, offering fellowship in times of stress, suffering and sorrow, diminishing the impact of anxiety and other emotions and anomie.
Social support, although important, is not the only mechanism by which religion influences health. Religion still has beneficial effects even when social support is a controlled variable.
Belief systems, cognitive framework Beliefs and cognitive processes influence how people deal with stress, suffering and life problems. Religious beliefs can provide support through the following ways: enhancing acceptance, endurance and resilience. On the other hand, they can bring guilt, doubts, anxiety and depression through an enhanced self-criticism. Why some actively act and others stay in despondency. An internal locus of control is usually associated with well-being, and an external one with depression and anxiety.
A religious belief can favor an internal locus of control with impact on mental health.
The study of religious coping, which can be positive or negative, has emerged as a promising research field. Positive religious coping has been associated with good health outcomes, and negative religious coping with the opposite. Religious patients tend to use more positive than negative religious coping. Religious practices Public and private religious practices can help to maintain mental health and prevent mental diseases. They help to cope with anxiety, fears, frustration, anger, anomie, inferiority feelings, despondency and isolation.
Improvement in panic attacks, generalized anxiety disorder, depression, insomnia, drug use, stress, chronic pain and other health problems have been reported.
Follow-up studies have documented the effectiveness of these technique. Spiritual direction Described as a special relationship between two human beings to help the development of the spiritual self. Its aims are to develop a relationship with God, to find meaning in life, and to promote personal growth. Idiom to express stress In times of stress and social disorganization certain religious rituals by means of techniques that elicit altered states of consciousness, can produce catharsis, dissociative states and a special milieu to express problems and suffering.
Multifactorial explanation Religion is a multidimensional phenomenon and no single fact can explain its actions and consequences. The combination of beliefs, behaviors and environment promoted by the religious involvement probably act altogether to determine the religious effects on health. The explanation of the mechanisms by which religion affects health has been an intellectually and methodologically challenging enterprise.
Patients do have spiritual needs that should be identified and addressed, but psychiatrists and other mental health professionals do not feel comfortable tackling these issues. Adequate training is necessary to integrate spirituality into clinical practice. In the presence of psychopathology, religion may be part of it, contributing to the symptoms obsessions or delusions for example. Sometimes, religion may become rigid and inflexible, and be associated with magical thinking and resistance.
It may hinder treatment if it forbids psychotherapy or the use of medication. In Brazil, where religious change is occurring rapidly, poverty and lack of education might make people vulnerable to spiritual abuse. Pruyser97 and Malony98 described the elements of a functional theology, present in all religions, which may promote good mental health. They are: awareness of God, acceptance of the grace and love of God, repentance and social responsibility, faith and trust, involvement in organized religion, fellowship, ethic, and tolerance and openness to the experiences of others.
During assessment, the psychiatrist should be able to determine if religion in the life of his patient is important, has a special meaning, is active or inactive, involves values in accordance to his main tradition, is useful or harmful, and promotes autonomy, personal growth, good self-image and interpersonal relationships.
A brief spiritual history is necessary to become familiar to the patients religious beliefs as they relate to decisions about medical care, understanding the role religion plays in coping with illness or causing stress, and identifying spiritual needs that may require assistance. Four basic areas should be remembered when taking a spiritual history 1 Does the patient use religion or spirituality to help cope with illness or is it a source of stress, and how?
Conclusions Ideas about the relationship between religiousness and mental health have changed over the past few centuries. During much of the 20th century, mental health professionals tended to deny the religious aspects of human life and often considered this dimension as either old-fashioned or pathological, predicting that it would disappear as mankind matured and developed.
However, hundreds of epidemiological studies performed during the last decades have shown a different picture. Religiousness remains an important aspect of human life and it usually has a positive association with good mental health. Even though most studies have been conducted in the United States in Christian populations, in the last few years several of the main findings have been replicated in samples from different countries and religions.
Two lines of investigation that need to be expanded are cross-cultural studies and application of these findings to clinical practice in different areas of the world. Considering that religiousness is frequent and has associations with mental health, it should be considered in research and clinical practice.
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